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NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

Year: 2018|   Volume No: 17|   ISSN: 1595-61-21|   Page No: 


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Title:  Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils Developed from Different Parent Materials Formed along Toposequence in Central and Southern Cross River State, Nigeria.
Eyong, M. O. and Akpa, E. A.

DEPARTMENT OF SOIL SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR, P.M.B. 1115, CALABAR, CROSS RIVER ST., NIGERIA.

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out to determine the physical and chemical properties of soils developed from different parent materials formed along toposequence in Central and Southern Cross River State in order to suggest suitable management techniques for these soils. The locations of the study area were Ekureku (sandstone),ObufaEsuk (coastal plain sand)and Akamkpa (limestone). Three profile pits were sited at the crest, middle slope and valley bottom positions in each parent material making a total of nine (9) profile pits. Samples were collected from each pedogenic horizon and taken to the laboratory for analysis. The physical properties revealed that the surface soils had mean values of sand content higher than the subsurface soils and predominantly sandy clay texture. The silt content was also higher in their mean values in surface soils than subsurface soils and predominantly sandy loam. The clay content was lower in their mean values in the surface soils than the subsurface soils. The mean bulk densities were low to high in both surface and subsurface soils of the three parent materials. Particle densities were generally low, mean values 2.43 and 2.39 g/cm3 for surface and subsurface in coastal plain soils, 2.37 and 2.2g/cm3 for surface and subsurface in sandstone while 2.2 and 1.9g/cm3 for surface and subsurface in limestone. For the chemical properties, the pH of limestone developed soils was higher with pH values of 7.6 followed by sandstone (5.6) and coastal plain soils (5.3) in the subsurface soils. The organic carbon was moderate to low in coastal plain soils with mean values of 13.1 g/kg and 5.3 g/kgin surface and subsurface soils respectively. Soils developed on sandstone had high organic carbon (14.4 g/kg) in the surface soil and low organic carbon (6.8 g/kg) in the subsurface soil while those developed on limestone had very high organic carbon (20.1 g/kg)in the surface soils and low organic carbon (9.6 g/kg) in the subsurface soils. The total nitrogen and available phosphorus (available P) were generally low in all the soils. Exchangeable bases were higher in soils developed on limestone than those in coastal plain sand and sandstone derived soils which did influence the effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and the base saturation of the soils developed on limestone parent materials. For the trend of distribution along the toposequence, all the physical and chemical properties follow irregular distribution pattern. Management practices recommended for these soils include application of organic and inorganic fertilizer, incorporation of crop residues and minimization of bush burning

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