Home | Nigerian Journal of Soil and Environmental Research | NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH | Abstract
NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

Year: 2018|   Volume No: 17|   ISSN: 1595-61-21|   Page No: 


AbstractFullText PDFReference
Title:  Determination of Crop Coefficient and Soil Water Balance Components for Two Cowpea Varieties under Mulch and Deficit Irrigation
Durven, S.N.*1, Igbadun, H.E.2 and Ramalan A. A.2

RAW MATERIALS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL, MAKURDI, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA 2DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL AND BIO-RESOURCES ENGINEERING, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This report presents a study to determine the soil water balance components of two cowpea varieties (SAMPEA 7 and 9) under mulch and deficit irrigation using locally assembled weighing-type microlysimeters. The field experiment was conducted during the 2011 dry season at Irrigation Research Fields of the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR), Samaru, Nigeria. The experiment consisted of twelve treatments comprising three levels of irrigation water application depths (50%, 75% and 100% of weekly reference evapotranspiration (WRETo)), two levels of mulch materials (No mulch;(NM) and black polyethylene; (BPM)) and two varieties of cowpea (SAMPEA 7 and 9) laid in a group balanced block on split-plot design. The micro-lysimeters of 0.26m2 were filled with repacked soil and installed in the middle of the 0.06ha cropped field. Soil water balance components such as irrigation water applied, drainage and average daily crop water use (ETc) were estimated. Drainage water was collected from the drainage collector and measured using a laboratory calibrated beaker. (ETc) were estimated from the weighing-type microlysimeter obtained from the change in water level inside the manometer tube (cm) and then converted to millimeters (mm) of water using a conversion factor of 3.8, while daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) were computed from weather data from 2000 to 2010 using the FAO-Penman Montieth method. The Crop coefficient values (Kc) were computed as the ratio of crop water use (ETc) to ETo. The dual crop coefficient (Kcb + Ke) values were also computed by relating the basal (T) and evaporation (E) components to the ETo for both the Kcb and Ke respectively. The drainage depth ranged from 3.9mm to 89.5mm, the least value was obtained with SAMPEA 9 at 50% WRETo and NM. The highest depth was by SAMPEA 9 at 100% WRETo and BPM. In comparison, SAMPEA 7 gave less drainage water compared to SAMPEA 9. The study showed that crop water use of cowpea ranged from 187.6mm to 335.6mm for SAMPEA 9 and 191.3mm to 315.8mm for SAMPEA 7 with the least values occurring at 50% WRETo and NM. The estimated values of Kc for SAMPEA 7 at initial, crop development, mid and late season stage were 0.32, 0.58, 0.63 and 0.39 respectively, and 0.32, 0.63, 0.72 and 0.34 respectively, for SAMPEA 9. In order to maximize irrigation water utilization under limited water supply, SAMPEA 7 variety should be mulched with black polyethylene, and water application depth per irrigation should be kept at 75% WRETo.

SUMMARY:

Correspondence:
Printer:
Copyright: