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NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

Year: 2018|   Volume No: 17|   ISSN: 1595-61-21|   Page No: 


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Title:  Relationship Between Bulk Density and Penetration Resistance of Alfisols in Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria
Abdulkadir, A.* and Christian, A. T.

DEPARTMENT OF SOIL SCIENCE, FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE/INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, NIGERIA.

ABSTRACT

Bulk density and penetration resistence are two measures of soil compaction and root growth in agricultural land uses. Few studies exist to show the relationship between these two properties especially with respect to the effect of land use. This study attempts to establish a relationship between values of bulk density and penetration resistance (PR) of Alfisol under three different land uses (Jatropha plantation, cultivated land and bush fallow). The study was conducted at Institute for Agricultural Research farms in Samaru, Zaria. A field was used per land use and each of the field was divided into 3 subplots. Six (6) undisturbed soil cores (5cm x 5cm) samples were collected from 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depth, i.e. from 3 points per sub-plot, giving a total of eighteen (18) soil core samples from each land use, and a total of 54 core samples from the three fields, for determination of bulk density. Six penetrometer readings were taken with a Cone Penetrometer close to the point (at approximately 4-5cm distance) where core samples were collected at the two soil depths per subplot per land use. Both sampling and measurements were conducted at two soil depths (0-5cm and 5-10 cm). Soil samples were collected and made into composite sample for each land use for routine analysis. Microsoft Excel (2010) was used to develop 3 polynomial regression relationship between penetration resistance value (in MPa) and transformed bulk density (Mg m ) data. Gravimetric soil moisture at measurement ranged from 25 to 30%. Bulk density differed statistically (p<0.0001) between all the land uses and increased with increase in soil depth. Jatropha plantation had the highest bulk density of 1.72 3 3 3 Mg m , followed by continuously cultivated land (1.63 Mg m ) and least was in fallow land (1.55 Mg m ). Similarly, penetration resistance was highest in Jatropha field (1.96 MPa) but which was statistically the same with fallow field (1.76 MPa), and both differ (p<0.05) from PR in cultivated field (1.06 MPa). Penetration resistance also increased with soil 2 depth. Polynomial regression coefficient (r ) values between bulk density and measured penetration resistance was between 0.8695 and 0.9919. Regression coefficients were higher in fallow and cultivated soils than from Jatropha soils, 2 indicating better relationship. Linear regression between measured and calculated penetration resistance had r between 0.8953 and 0.9793 for the three land uses, but relationship was found to be higher in cultivated soils. This study provides an insight to the existing relationship between bulk density and penetration resistance by polynomial regression model and suggests the use of the value of the bulk density to approximate that of PR. However, further improvement and validation of proposed models is required for soils under other land uses and other agro-ecological zones.

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