Journal Of Tropical Biosciences
Volume No: 11|
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Title: PREVALENCE OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INFECTION AMONG HIV/AIDS PATIENTS ON ANTI-RETROVIRAL TREATMENT AT THE NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS AND LEPROSY TRAINING CENTER, SAYE, ZARIA-NIGERIA
1*ABDULLAHI, B., 1SHAIBU, M. A., 2ABDULFATAI, K. AND 1IYORLAN E.
1DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, NIGERIA.
2DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY, KADUNA STATE UNIVERSITY, KADUNA, NIGERIA.
One hundred and two blood and stool samples each were collected from re-confirmed HIV/AIDS patients on anti-retroviral treatment at National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Training Center, Saye-Zaria, Nigeria. The blood samples were collected to determine the patients’ CD4 cell count using Cyflow counter. Stool samples were examined to detect Cryptosporidium spp. using direct microscopy. Of the total 102 stool samples collected, 68 were positive for Cryptosporidium giving rise to 66.67% prevalence rate. Patients with low (1-100cells/μl and 101-200cells/μl) CD4 counts had 100% prevalence rate each, while those with higher (1001-2000 cells/μl) CD4 counts had (7%) prevalence rate. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was higher in HIV/AIDS patients presenting with Diarrhea (77.4%) compared to non-diarrheic patients (50.0%). Females had higher prevalence rate of 67.2% compared to their male counterpart with 65.8% rate. Structured questionnaire was administered prior to sample collection to determine socio-demographic and risk factors associated with the infection. Socio-demographic factor and risk factors were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software version 20.0 and adds ratio respectively. Occupation was the only demographic factor that was statistically significant (P=0.00) with Cryptosporidium infection. There was statistically significant association (OR>1) between well as source of drinking water and prevalence of the infection. Also, there was association between washing of vegetables before eating and the prevalence rate of the infection (OR>1). The overall prevalence rate observed in this study revealed that cryptosporidiosis continues to pose a major threat to AIDS patients in developing countries where the use of ART is not properly monitored. Since there is currently no effective specific therapy or vaccine available for cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompromised, it is necessary to continue investigating the biology of Cryptosporidium and host immune responses to it in order to develop novel and effective prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat this disease in those who are at the greatest risk of acquiring it and suffering its consequences.
This study determined the prevalence of Cryptosporidium among HIV/AIDS patients. An overall prevalence rate of 66.7% was observed which is high and of public health concern. Patients with low CD4 cell count had higher Cryptosporidium infection compared with those with normal count. Diarrheic patients had higher prevalence rate (77.4%) of Cryptosporidium infection compared to non-diarrheic ones (50.0%). Females had higher prevalence rate (67.2%) compared to their male (65.8%) counterpart. Demographic factor such as occupation was found to be associated with prevalence of the infection. There was statistically significant association between Cryptosporidium infection and well as source of drinking water of the HIV/AIDS patients.