Journal Of Tropical Biosciences
Volume No: 11|
Page No: 19
| FullText PDF
Title: EVALUATION OF DETOXIFIED BALANITES AEGYPTICA FRUITS IN NUTRITION OF GROWING SWINE
*ANNONGU1, A.A., ADEYEMI2, O. A., SOLA-OJO3, F.E., KAYODE4, R. M. O., ADEDIBU5 I.I., AND SANNI1, J. I.
1UNIT OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY & TOXICOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION,&NBSP;UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, ILORIN, NIGERIA.
2DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, ABEOKUTA.
1UNIT OF ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS, DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN
3DEPARTMENT OF HOME ECONOMICS AND FOOD SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, KWARA, NIGERIA
4DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, NIGERIA.
Attempts were made to detoxify Balanites aegyptiaca fruits containing phytochemicals such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, coumarines, nitrates. Twenty (20) growing pigs of average weight 4.5 ± 0.85kg per pig at the start of the feeding trial were used in a single factor design experiment and fed five diets made of a conventional diet and four test diets which contained boiled, roasted, boiled & roasted, boiled & fermented B. aegyptiaca fruits at 20% inclusion level. Feed intake and body weight gain of the pigs fed the test diets were comparable with the control diet (p > 0.05), but the test diets were inferior to the reference diet for feed efficiency (p < 0.05). Nutrients digested and retained were not significantly influenced (p > 0.05) except for protein and fat digestibility (p < 0.05.Gross energy intake and daily retained energy were significantly influenced on the test diets (p < 0.05) relative to the control diet while the calculated metabolizable energy was not affected by the Balanites-based diets (p > 0.05). Protein-nitrogen intake and utilization values on dietary Balanites were not significantly different from the values obtained on the control diet (p >0.05). It was established in this study that Balanites aegyptiaca fruits, when detoxified by any of the traditional methods adopted in this work, could be incorporated in diets for swine up to 20% level without deleterious effects on the fed animals.
Although proximate composition of the fruit (Table 2) revealed the presence of valuable nutrients and high energy content, the preponderance of its anti-nutritional/toxic factors such as the saponins, tannins, nitrates, coumarines, other alkaloids may prevent the full dietary utilization of the nutrients in the fruits. The presence of phtyotochemicals or toxic factors in the raw fruit could hinder availability and utilization of nutrients therefore the fruits must be subjected to adequate processing before its inclusion in the diet of animal. The dietary performance indices of the growing pigs fed the diets with detoxified B. aegyptiaca fruits is given on Table 3. There were no significant differences in daily feed intake and weight gain by the pigs relative to the control diet (p>0.05), suggesting that the test diets were comparable to the conventional diets in protein and energy. Similarly, survival rate on all the experimental diets was 100% with no difference between the control and test diets. Feed efficiency on the control diet however, was superior compared to those on the test diets (p<0.05). The result obtained on efficiency of feed utilization may indicate that no treatment method (s) could achieve 100 % efficiency in detoxification.