ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF BOSCIA SALICIFOLIA IN RATS AND MICE
Keywords:Analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, Boscia salicifolia, carrageenan, hot plate, piroxicam.
Boscia salicifolia (Capparacea) is used commonly in Africa as a medicinal plant due to its therapeutic properties such
as healing of wounds due to its antioxidant potentials, treatment of tuberculosis and deworming ability in certain
individuals because of its antibacterial and anthelminthic activities. The aim of this investigation is to determine the
analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of B. salicifolia in rats and mice using thermal-induced pain and
carrageenan-induced inflammation respectively. A preliminary acute toxicity study using Lorke’s method which
involves a total of 13 mice was performed to determine the LD50 of methanol stem bark extract of B. salicifolia.
Phytochemical screening of the plant extract was conducted to elucidate the bioactive constituents present in the
extract. Hot plate method was used to induce pain in five (5) groups of six (6) rats each. The treatment and doses
administered were normal saline 1 mL/kg for group 1, B. salicifolia at doses of 120, 240, 360 mg/kg, for groups 2, 3,
and 4 respectively. While group 5 was given 20 mg/kg piroxicam. In the anti-inflammatory study, Carrageenan (0.6%)
was administered intraperitoneally to rats to induce inflammation in five (5) groups of six (6) rats each. Group 1 rats
were administered 10 mL/kg normal saline and groups 2-5 were given similar treatment at doses similar to those for
the analgesic studies. Results obtained from the studies have shown an LD50 of the extract of 3800 mg/kg. The latency
period of response to thermal-induced pain increased significantly (p<0.05) at 120, 240, 360 of the extract and 20
mg/kg of piroxicam after 60 minutes of administration. The latency period was prolonged at 60 minutes after a dose
of 240 mg/kg B. salicifolia. Reduction in carrageenan-induced paw edema by B. salicifolia was not observed in all
the tested doses and piroxicam groups. In conclusion, the investigation has shown that B. salicifolia produced a time-
dependent maximal analgesic effect after 60 minutes of administration of 240 mg/kg in mice. However, it lacks anti-
inflammatory property in rats at the tested doses.